Centre d'Information sur les Institutions Européennes

Centre d'Information sur les Institutions Européennes (CIIE)


  • Accession to the EU: 2013
  • Accession to the Council of Europe : 1996
  • Area : 56.594 km2
  • Population : 4.25 million inhabitants (2014) 
  • Capital : Zagreb
  • Official language : Croatian
  • Predominant religion : Catholicism 
  • Government type : Parliamentary republic
  • Head of State : Zoran Milanovic elected January 5, 2020
  • Head of Government : Andrej Plenković since Oct, 2016.
  • Official currency : Kuna
  • International code : +385
  • National holiday : June 25
  •  The  Croatian deputies of the European Parliament

The history of Croatia is very rich; the country is practically a mosaic of influences. During the last millennium, it has managed to preserve its identity, although it was part of various larger, dominating entities.

Pula Arena © Milan Babić, ONT Croatie
Text: CIA World Factbook: Croatia
  • 1102 : Croatia signs a treaty which forms a union with the Hungarian Kingdom.
  • 1527 : The Austrian Emperor becomes suzerain of Croatia. This marks the debut of the Habsbourgeois era in Croatia.
  • 1918 : In the wake of the First World War, a kingdom composed of Croatians, Serbs, and Slovenians is created. This kingdom united Croatia with Montenegro and Serbia. 
  • 1929 : King Alexander proclaims the kingdom of Yugoslavia, which replaced the previous kingdom of the Croatians, Serbs, and Slovenians, with a dictatorship under the King.
  • 1941 : Germany invades and occupies Yugoslavia. The country was under the control of Germany and Italy.
  • 1945 : In the aftermath of WWII, there was a bloody and intricate civil war in Yugoslavia. The Popular Republic of Croatia becomes one of the six components of the new Republic of Yugoslavia, under the leadership of Croatian Josip Broz, a.k.a. Tito.
  • 1991 : Start of the Croatian War of Independence.
  • 1992 : Croatia was recognized by the international community. 
  • 1995 : The Dayton Agreement leads to the independence of the Republic of Croatia.
  • 1996 : Croatia joins the Council of Europe. 
  • 2002 : Milosevic is extradited to the Hague, where he is accused of crimes against humanity before the International Criminal Court.
  • 2004 : Croatia becomes an official candidate for accession to the European Union.
  • 2005 : The beginning of the negociations of adhesion to the EU.
  • June 30, 2011 : Official end of the negociations for accession to EU.
  • 2012: On January 22, 2012 the Croatians voted to enter the EU (66.67%).
  • 2013 Croatia became the 28th member state of the European Union on July 1st.
  • 2019 The Croatian Marija Pejčinović Burić was elected Secretary General of the Council of Europe for a five-year term.

In 1242, Zagreb (called Gradec at the time) was proclaimed a Free Town of the Kingdom by the Golden Bull of Croatia-Hungary, King Bela IV. Later, in 1557, Zagreb was proclaimed the capital of the Croatian state for the first time . This facilitated the transfer of the Croatian government from Varaždin to Zagreb at the end of the 18th century.
When it comes to culture in Croatia, the city of Zagreb is pinnacle of art. It hosts 38 cultural institutions, including 10 city museums, the most significant of which are the Zagreb Municipal Museum, the Museum for Arts and Crafts. and the Museum of Contemporary Art.

Picture: street of Zagreb © Ivo Pervan, ONT Croatie
Text: www.zagreb.hr: The City of Zagreb, Official Site

With an exceptionnally pure ocean and around 1200 islands, as well as tropical forests, rivers and lakes, Croatia is proud of its beautiful nature, made all the more remarkable by the fact that it is situated just hundreds of kilometers away from Rome, Milan, Vienna, and Budapest. One-twelfth of the Croatian territory is protected: there are more than 7 national parks, 6 natural parks, and 2 natural reserves (including one of the biggest ornithological reserves in Europe). 

The Plitvice national park is considered a World Heritage site, and the archipelago of Kornati has 16 lakes connected to one another by more than 100 cascades. With 140 islands, it is the most dense archipelago in the Mediterranean. You can also find the Paklenica canyon in the huge Velebit mountains, famous for its rare beauty.
Picture: Plitvice © Ivo Pervan, ONT Croatie


The Croatians have their own alphabet, known as glagolitic. This alphabet was created in the 9th century, and was used up until the debut of the 18th century. After this period, the Croatians adopted the Latin alphabet.

The tie

In 1635, 6,000 Croatian soldiers were brought to Paris to protect the Court of Louis XIII. The Croatian uniform, which includes the modern day tie, intrigued the French Court. The tie thus became a popular accessory among the French Bourgeoisie. The French word for “tie” is “cravate”; it derives from the Croatian word “Hrvat”.
© lecravatier.com

The Dalmatian

This famous dog breed comes from Dalmatia, a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The Dalmatian is known for its endurance, elegance and endearing nature. It was raised to guard the barouches and the horses. In Victorian England, it was called the “Spotted Coach Dog”. 

The White House

The famous White House in Washington was constucted with white marble stone from the Croatian island Brac. 


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