Centre d'Information sur les Institutions Européennes

Centre d'Information sur les Institutions Européennes (CIIE)


  • Accession to the Council of Europe: 2007
  • Area : 13 812 km2
  • Population : 624 335 inhabitants (2014)
  • Capital : Podgorica
  • Official language : Montenegrin
  • Predominant religion : Orthodox
  • Political Regime : Republic
  • Head of state : President Milo Djukanovic elected April 15, 2018
  • Head of government : Prime Minister Milo Djukanovic (since 9 november 2012)
  • Currency : Euro (€)
  • International code : +382
  • National holiday : July 13 (1878)
The name “Montenegro” derives from the Serbian “Crna Gora”, itself derived from the Venetian “Monte Negro”, and can be translated as “black mountain”, referring to the dark forests that once covered the Dinaric Alps.
Although border of the Ottoman Empire, Montenegro was able to maitain its independence throughout the fifteenth century. The Kingdom enjoyed a short period of independence in 1910 before being absorbed by the Kingodm of Yougoslavia in 1929. It encountered a lot of changes of status before becoming the last European country to have achieved its independence in June 2006.

Picture: Budva, Montenegro © European Commission
  • 1910 : Montenegro became an independent kingdom.
  • 1918 : King Nicolas I is stripped of his Crown for Montenegro to unit with the Kingdom of Serbs. The state puts an end to forty years of independence and will thus be part of Yugoslavia in 1929.
  • 1943 : founding of the Socialist Federal Republic. First named Democratic Federation of Yugoslavia, it took the name Federal Popular Republic of Yugoslavia after the adoption of a new constitution in January 31, 1946, and finally became the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963. It survived until January 15, 1992, when four of its republics seceded.
  • 1992 : After the secession of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and the dismantling of the former Yugoslavia (1946-1991), a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was created. It was composed of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2003 : The Federation is transformed into a Community of Serbia and Montenegro.
  • 2006 : in May, 55% of Montenegrins voted “yes” to independence by referendum. On June 3, the Montenegrin parliament proclaimed the country’s independence and the dissolution of the Community of Serbia and Montenegro. He became the 56th Member State of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and is admitted as the 192nd Member State of the United Nations.
  • 2007 : Montenegro adopted by referendum a new constitution by two-thirds majority after more than a year of political debate. Became the 47th member of the Council of Europe.
  • 2008 : The historical leader Milo Ðukanovic became Prime Minister while Filip Vujanovic was elected president on April 6. Agreements with the EU : Interim Agreement on trade and related matters, facilitation of visa issuance agreement and agreement on the readmission of persons residing without authorization.
  • 2009 : waiving of the visa requirements for citizens traveling in Europe.
  • 2010 : Entry into force of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU. The European Council granted Montenegro official candidate status to the UE.
Podgorica is the commercial and cultural center of Montenegro. His name emerged in 1326. the city is built around five rivers, the Zeta, the Moraca, the Ribnica the Cijevna and Sitnica. Most of the city was destroyed during the Second World War therefore Podgorica is now a relatively new city with modern buildings and green spaces. Podgorica organizes many cultural events throughout the year. Its rich culture encompasses many theaters as Crnogorsko Narodno, the Gradsko Dodest theater and many cultural and historical centers around Podgorica, as Sahat-kula, Adzi Osmanagic-pasa, the ruins of Nemanjic Grad and those of the city ​​of Doclea.

Picture : Downtown Podgorica © European Commission

Kotor -natural and historical world heritage

Kotor is situated along one of the most beautiful bays in Montenegro. The old town has preserved its mediaeval style, with buildings and houses built between the XII and XIV centuries. The medieval architecture and cultural heritage have made Kotor city an exceptional site, now listed on the World Heritage by UNESCO. The city is crossed by narrow streets and typical places. On one of the square stands the Cathedral of St. Tryphon (Sveti Tripun), a monument of Roman culture and the symbol of the city. The Church of Saint Luke (Sveti Luka) dating from the thirteenth century, St. Anne’s Church (Sveta Ana) from the twelfth century, St. Mary’s Church (Sveta Marija), the Prince’s Palace dating from the seventeenth century or the Theatre Napoleon built in the nineteenth century are among the many treasures to discover in Kotor. In addition, the cultural richness of Kotor is also reflected through the many carnivals and festivals, both traditional and modern, the city hosts each year.

Picture : Bay of Kotor © European Commission

The monastery of Rezevici is located on a picturesque green plateau overlooking the sea, on the shores of Petrovac. A legend dates its construction in 1226. The monastery has two churches, dormitories and an annex. While the small church, the Uspenje Bogorodice (falling asleep of the Holy Mother of God) was built in the thirteenth century, the largest, Sveta Trojica (Holy Trinity) was built in the eighteenth century and has a befroi. The artist Marko Gregovic is the author of some of the interior of the church. Partially destroyed by an earthquake in 1979, the monastery was restored thereafter. Her beauty allowed her to be recognized World Heritage by UNESCO, and is one of the monuments of the country vistas.

Picture : Monastery of Rezivici © European Commission

A traditional instrument: the gusle

The gusle is considered as the traditional instrument of Montenegro, used in the hinterland to accompany epic poetry. These poems are borrowing the theme of heroic in that they tell the Montenegrin national story.
The importance of this instrument in the culture is such that the Montenegrin Prince-Bishop of Montenegro Petar II Petrović Njegoš (1813-1851) made his hero Vuk Micunovic say in the poem The White Mountain : “In a house were we do not hear the gusle, the house and the people who live there are dead. “

Picture : gusle player © wikimediacommons

Sources of texts:

  • CIA world factbook
  • Montenegrin government official website
  • diplomatie.gouv.fr


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